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 MALlC 2005 - New Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation

NewyddionThis is a bilingual message, the English text can be found Here

Mynegai Amddifadedd Lluosog Cymru 2005 (MALlC) ywr mynegai swyddogol ar gyfer mesur amddifadedd mewn rhannau bychain o Gymru. Fei datblygwyd ar gyfer Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru gan Gyfarwyddiaeth Ystadegol y Cynulliad ar Uned Ddata Llywodraeth Leol. Maen disodlir mynegai a gynhyrchwyd yn 2000. Hwn oedd yn sail i dynodi ardaloedd Cymunedau'n Gyntaf.

Beth yw amddifadedd lluosog?
Mae amddifadedd yn golygu mwy na thlodi. Mae tlodin golygu bod heb ddigon o arian (neu hanfodion eraill) ich cynnal. Mae amddifadedd yn cyfeirio at y problemau syn deillio o ddiffyg adnoddau a chyfleoedd yn gyffredinol (nid arian yn unig).

Nid ywn bosibl mesur amddifadedd lluosog, fel yi defnyddir ar gyfer y MALlC, yn uniongyrchol nid rhyw fath o arbennig o amddifadedd ydyw. Maen gymysgedd o wahanol fathau o amddifadedd, a gellir mesur pob un or rhain i ryw raddau. Ond nid ywn fater syml ou hychwanegu at ei gilydd i wneud mynegai cyffredinol gan y gallant effeithio ar ei gilydd a chael mwy o effaith os ceir rhai cyfuniadau arbennig.



Mwy...More...

Beth yw mynegai?
Grwp o fesuriadau unigol syn cael eu cyfuno i greu un rhif yw mynegai. Mae mynegai yn dangos newidiadau mewn newidyn cymhleth fel deallusrwydd neu allbwn diwydiannol. Gellir cymharu gwerthoedd y mynegai gydai gilydd, weithiau dros amser ac weithiau ar gyfer gwahanol ardaloedd daearyddol.

Er enghraifft, maer Mynegai Prisiau Manwerthu yn fynegai enwog syn seiliedig ar brisiaur nwyddau syn cael eu prynu mewn cartref nodweddiadol. Maen cynnwys popeth o fwyd a thai i adloniant. Caiff ei ddefnyddio i fesur newidiadau yng nghostau byw.

Maen hawdd cyfrifo a deall mynegeion. Y broblem yw penderfynu beth iw gynnwys a pha mor bwysig y dylai pob elfen fod yn aml mae gwahaniaeth barn ar y ddau beth.

Sut y cafodd y mynegai ei lunio?
Cynhwysir saith gwahanol fath o amddifadedd yn MALlC 2005:
incwm
cyflogaeth
iechyd
addysg
tai
gwasanaethau
yr amgylchedd

Roedd pob un ohonynt yn seiliedig ar nifer o wahanol ddangosyddion. Roedd hyn yn golygu eu bod yn cael eu mesur mewn gwahanol ffyrdd gan ddefnyddio gwahanol unedau. Felly cyn y gellir eu cyfuno rhaid addasur mesuriadau er mwyn eu gwneud yn gyson. Er enghraifft, os cafodd uchder rhywbeth ei fesur mewn metrau ar pwysau mewn kilogramau, ni fyddain gwneud synnwyr ychwanegur ddau ffigur at ei gilydd.

Penderfynwyd mai incwm a chyflogaeth oedd y ffactorau pwysicaf, ar rhain syn cyfrannu fwyaf at y mynegai cyffredinol. Er bod amddifadedd yn golygu mwy na thlodi, mae bod heb arian neu swydd yn ffactorau pwysig.

Rhannwyd Cymru yn 1,896 o ardaloedd gyda tuar un faint o bobl yn byw ym mhob un. Gelwir y rhain yn Ardaloedd Cynnyrch Ehangach, syn ffordd safonol o rannu Cymru a Lloegr. Cyfrifwyd sgoriau amddifadedd ar gyfer pob un or ardaloedd hyn: mae sgoriau uwch yn golygu mwy o amddifadedd. Mae sgr amddifadedd ardal yn uwch nag un ardal arall os yw cyfran uwch or bobl syn byw yno wediu dynodi fel rhai syn dioddef o amddifadedd. Nid ywr ardal ei hun yn dioddef o amddifadedd: amgylchiadau a ffordd o fyw y bobl syn byw yno syn effeithio ar y sgr amddifadedd. Ac maen bwysig cofio nad yw pawb syn byw mewn ardal o amddifadedd yn dioddef o amddifadedd ac nad yw pawb syn dioddef o amddifadedd yn byw mewn ardal o amddifadedd.

Ar gyfer beth y gellir defnyddior mynegai?
Gellir defnyddior mynegai er mwyn:

rhoi sgr amddifadedd cyffredinol ar gyfer pob un or 1,896 ardal yng Nghymru;
rhoi sgr ar gyfer y saith gwahanol fath o amddifadedd ym mhob un or ardaloedd;
cymharur sgoriau amddifadedd ar gyfer dwy neu fwy or ardaloedd;
trefnur sgoriau ar gyfer y 1,896 ardal (neu grw p o ardaloedd, o fewn awdurdod lleol er enghraifft), fel y gellir eu gosod yn eu trefn or mwyaf difreintiedig ir lleiaf difreintiedig;
cymharu dau awdurdod lleol neu fwy (neu grwpiau eraill o ardaloedd) drwy edrych ar gyfran yr ardaloedd o fewn yr awdurdod lleol sydd yn y deg y cant (dyweder) mwyaf difreintiedig yng Nghymru gyfan.

O ran incwm a chyflogaeth gellir gweld faint o bobl sydd wediu dynodin rhai syn dioddef o amddifadedd syn byw mewn ardal (yn ogystal sgr amddifadedd). Dim ond y sgoriau sydd ar gael ar gyfer y pum math arall o amddifadedd (gan eu bod wediu cyfrifo gan ddefnyddio amrywiaeth o ddangosyddion yn hytrach na niferoedd o bobl yn unig). Gellir defnyddior data y maer mynegai yn seiliedig arno i weld unrhyw newidiadau dros amser.

Pa bethau na ellir defnyddior mynegai ar eu cyfer?
Byddai rhywun yn cael ei demtio i ddefnyddior mynegai i wneud rhai pethau nad ydynt yn gwneud synnwyr mewn gwirionedd, a gallent arwain at ganlyniadau nad ydynt yn ddibynadwy.

Nid yw newidiadau bach iawn yn y sgoriau amddifadedd yn golygu unrhyw beth. Nid oes unrhyw ddiben mewn chwilio a chwalu ymysg y pwyntiau degol i geisio dangos bod un ardal yn fwy difreintiedig nag un arall.

Ni allwch ddweud gymaint yn fwy o amddifadedd sydd mewn un ardal o gymharu ag ardal arall. Os oes gan ardal A sgr o 40 a bod gan ardal B sgr o 20, nid ywn dilyn bod dwywaith yn gymaint o amddifadedd yn ardal A ag sydd yn ardal B. Neu os yw A yn rhif 100 yn y rhestr or ardaloedd mwyaf difreintiedig a B yn rhif 300, nid ywn dilyn bod teirgwaith yn fwy o amddifadedd yn A nag sydd yna yn B. Mae yna demtasiwn cryf i ddod i gasgliadau fel hyn, ond maent yn anghywir.

Mynegai o amddifadedd yw hwn, nid mynegai o ffyniant. Os yw un ardal yn llawer is i lawr y rhestr nag ardal arall yna gallwch ddweud bod yna lai o amddifadedd yno ond ni allwch ddweud ei bod yn fwy ffyniannus. Nid ywr mynegai yn seiliedig ar y ffactorau syn pennu bod rhywlen ffyniannus. Mae pob ardal yn cynnwys pobl syn dioddef o amddifadedd a phobl mwy ffyniannus, ond dim ond y bobl sydd wediu dynodi yn rhai syn dioddef o amddifadedd y maer mynegai yn eu cyfrif. Nid ywn gwneud unrhyw wahaniaeth a ywr gweddill bron a bod yn dioddef o amddifadedd, yn eithaf cyfoethog neun gyfoethog iawn.

Ni ellir cymharur ffigurau amddifadedd ym mynegai 2005 gydar rhai ar gyfer 2000. Maer ardaloedd a ddefnyddiwyd ar gyfer y mynegeion yn wahanol, ac fe gyfrifwyd y mynegeion mewn gwahanol ffyrdd. Ond hyd yn oed heb y newidiadau hyn, ni fyddain bosibl eu cymharu. Mae sgoriaur holl ardaloedd eraill yn effeithio ar sgr pob ardal, felly maen amhosibl dweud a yw unrhyw newid yn y sgr yn deillio o newid yn lefel amddifadedd yr ardal, neu o ganlyniad ir ffaith bod sgoriau ardaloedd eraill wedi codi neu ostwng. Ni ellir cymharur sgoriau amddifadedd gyda rhai mynegeion amddifadedd gwledydd eraill y DU. Er mwyn gallu cymharu ardal yng Nghymru gydag un yn Lloegr (dyweder) byddain rhaid llunio mynegai ar gyfer Cymru a Lloegr ar y cyd ni fyddai cael dau fynegai gwahanol yn gweithio. Nid oes unrhyw sgoriau amddifadedd swyddogol ar gyfer awdurdodau lleol. Gellir cyfrifo sgoriau awdurdodau lleol ond mae yna nifer o ffyrdd o wneud hynny, ac nid oes yna un ffordd amlwg gywir oi wneud.

Crynodeb

Gyda Mynegai Amddifadedd Lluosog Cymru 2005: mae sgr uwch yn golygu mwy o amddifadedd;
gallwch weld a yw ardaloedd yn dioddef o amddifadedd ond nid a ydynt yn ffynnu;
ni ellir cymharur sgoriau gyda rhai mynegai 2000, ond gellir defnyddior data y seiliwyd y mynegai arno i weld y newidiadau dros amser;
ni ellir cymharur sgoriau o Gymru gydar rhai ar gyfer gwledydd eraill y DU;
nid oes yna sgoriau amddifadedd cyffredinol ar gyfer awdurdodau lleol;
gellir cymharu sgoriau dwy wahanol ardal i weld a yw un y dioddef o fwy o amddifadedd, (ond ni allwch weld faint yn fwy neun llai o amddifadedd sydd yno).

Gallwch weld adroddiadau manylach yn - www.cymru.gov.uk/ystadegau, cliciwch ar Cyhoeddiadau Ystadegol.

======================================

Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation 2005

The Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation 2005 (WIMD) is the official measure of deprivation for small areas in Wales. It was developed for the Welsh Assembly Government by the Assemblys Statistical Directorate and the Local Government Data Unit. It replaces the index which was produced in 2000.

What is multiple deprivation?
Deprivation is a wider concept than poverty. Poverty means not having enough money (or other essentials) to get by. Deprivation refers to problems caused by a general lack of resources and opportunities (not just money).

Multiple deprivation, in the sense that it is used for the WIMD, cannot be measured directly - it is not some special sort of deprivation. It is a mixture of separate kinds of deprivation, each of which can be measured to some extent. But they cannot just be added together to make an overall index because they may interact and have more impact if found in certain combinations.

What is an index?
An index is group of separate measurements which are combined into a single number. They are designed to show changes in a complicated variable like intelligence or industrial output. Values of the index can be compared with each other, sometimes over time and sometimes for different geographical areas.

For example, the Retail Price Index (RPI) is a well-known index based on the prices of goods bought by an average household. It includes everything from food and housing to entertainment. The RPI is used to measure changes in the cost of living.

Indexes are easy to work out and to understand. The problem is in deciding what to include and how much importance to give it - opinions could vary on both, and often do.

How was the index put together?
The WIMD 2005 is made up of seven separate kinds of deprivation:
income
employment
health
education
housing
access to services
environment

Each of them was based on a range of different indicators which meant that they were measured in different ways using different units. So before they could be combined the measurements had to be altered to make them consistent. For example, if the height of something had been measured in metres and the weight in kilograms it would not make sense simply to add them together.

Income and employment were classed as the most important factors, and they were made the biggest contributors to the overall index. Although there is more to deprivation than poverty, not having enough money or a job is a big part of it.

Wales has been divided into 1,896 areas each having roughly the same number of people. These are known as Super Output Areas: a standard way of dividing up England and Wales. Deprivation scores have been worked out for each of these areas: higher scores mean more deprivation. An area has a higher deprivation score than another one if the proportion of people living there who are classed as deprived is higher. An area itself is not deprived: it is the circumstances and lifestyles of the people living there that affect its deprivation score. And it is important to remember that not everyone living in a deprived area is deprived - and that not all deprived people live in deprived areas.

What can the index be used for?
The index can be used for:
giving an overall deprivation score for each of the 1,896 areas in Wales;
giving scores for the seven separate kinds of deprivation for each of the areas;
comparing the deprivation scores for two or more of the areas;
ranking the scores for all 1,896 areas or for a group of them (like those in a local authority), so that the areas can be put in order from the most deprived to the least;
comparing two or more local authorities (or other groups of areas) by looking at the proportion of the areas in the local authority in the most deprived (say) ten per cent in all of Wales;

For income and employment it is possible to get the numbers of people classed as deprived living in an area (as well as a deprivation score). For the other five kinds of deprivation only the scores are available (because they are worked out using a range of indicators rather than just numbers of people). The data on which the index is based can be used to check for changes over time.

What cant the index be used for?
There are a few ways in which it is tempting to use the index, but which dont really make sense or which lead to unreliable results.

Tiny differences in the deprivation scores dont mean anything. Theres no point rummaging among the decimal places trying to show that one area is more deprived than another.

You cant say how much more deprived one area is than another. If area A has a score of 40 and area B one of 20, it does not follow that A is twice as deprived as B. Or if A were ranked as the 100th most deprived area and B the 300th, it does not follow that A is three times more deprived than B. There can be a strong temptation to jump to conclusions like these, but they are definitely wrong.

It is an index of deprivation not affluence. If one area is much lower down the ranked list than another then you can say that it is less deprived but you cant say it is more affluent. The index is not based on the factors which mean that a place is affluent. Every area has people who are deprived and people who are affluent, but the index counts only those classed as deprived. It makes no difference whether the rest are nearly deprived but not quite, fairly well-off, or really rich.

The deprivation scores from the 2005 index cant be compared with those from 2000. The areas on which the indexes are based are different, and the indexes were worked out in different ways. But even if these changes had not been made, comparisons would still not be valid. An areas score is affected by the scores of every other area; so it is impossible to tell whether a change in score is a real change in the deprivation level of an area, or whether it is due to the scores of other areas going up or down.

The deprivation scores cant be compared with those from the deprivation indexes of other UK countries. To be able to compare an area in Wales with one in (say) England would mean having to design a joint England and Wales index - having two separate indexes wouldnt work.

There are no official local authority deprivation scores. Local authority scores can be worked out but there are several ways to do it, and there is no single right way to do it.

Summary
With the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation 2005:
higher scores mean more deprivation;
you can tell if areas are deprived but not if they are affluent;
the scores cant be compared with those from the 2000 index, but the data on which the index is based can be used to check for changes over time;
the scores for Wales cant be compared with those for other UK countries;
there are no official overall local authority deprivation scores;
the scores of two different areas can be compared to see if one is more deprived, (but you cant tell by how much).

For more detailed reports go to - www.wales.gov.uk/statistics, and click on Statistical Publications.

Note: There is a forum to try and sort out some of the implications for Gwynedd - Yma...Here... in the lounge.



 
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